2022-2023 Heritage Visualization @GSA
2006-2021 Creative Digital Advertising @Shanghai
2002-2006 Multimedia Design @ China Academy of Art, Design Institution Shanghai
Christine is a recent graduate of the MSc Heritage Visualization program at the Glasgow School of Art. She had been working in digital advertising and creative design for over 14 years in Shanghai before she moved to Glasgow. She is interested in the use of creative virtual contents to boost visitors’ learning experience in heritage visiting context and is passionate about integrating creative thinking with innovative technologies to enhance public engagement. Recently, she focused on the impact of virtual restoration with multiple interpretations through projection mapping on visitors’ understanding processes in early medieval Christian monuments of Scotland.
The project focuses on exploring the impact of virtual restoration through projection mapping as a heritage multi-interpretation tool on visitors’ learning processes of Govan Stones that own a few uncertainties and ambiguities when it comes to heritage interpretation, which affects visitors to understand and experience Govan Stones in Govan Old Parish Church. This research combines Photogrammetry, historical evidence collecting, virtual restoration including 2D iconographic proposals and 3D sculpturing, video making, and installation setting. There were five possible interpretations of the hunting scene panel of Sunstone presented through projection mapping over three days in GoP, recalling the stone’s previous function and significance – as a visual aid, allowing visitors to have a vivid view of the possible pastness of Sunstone. From the data analysis outcomes, visitors have an open mind to accept multiple interpretations and are amazed by the colorful virtual pigments shown by projector for history learning. Consequently, there is interest from visitors that they are willing to learn Govan Stones through this in-situ innovative, interesting installation. This research emphasizes the property of virtual restoration that it has no physical intervention on objects, which is different from traditional physical restoration that usually provides one possibility, brings the life to ancient stones with changeable virtual models through real-time projection mapping.
interpretation of bear
female rider interpretation
A Case Study of Virgin Standing at the Child
Since the development of digital technology, the traditional conception of ‘object’ now has been questioned frequently and a new accompanying explanation of ‘digital object’ has emerged (Hui, 2012). Thus, the recent advances of digital technology are asking for a new life cycle from production to consumption (Dannehl, 2018) in digital domain, which would create a fresh relationship between humans and digital objects. Virtual Archaeology includes virtual restoration, digital reconstruction, virtual recreation etc. All these mentioned definitions share a common characteristic – involving the process of reconstructing something that existed in the past from available evidence. Any kinds of artifacts are the results of cultural expressions and determined by the availability of materials, craftsmanship techniques, local economies and contemporary aesthetic taste (Bier, 1998). My research question is how material culture approaches can support or affect virtual restoration of liturgical sculptures? A case study of Virgin and the Child. I applied material culture approach as the key framework companying with other methods. The first objective is to figure out the evidence for virtual restoration – two arms and parts of feet of the Child are missing, and the I figured out what they were like before. Then, the second research objective is to evaluate the result, if the material culture approach could challenge the previous practice or ideas in virtual restoration and benefit the creative representation. Finally, I contemplated and practiced the relationship and differences between the new digital replica, the physical one and audience from various perspectives based on material culture ideas.
Virtual Restoration of Virgin and Child
Templates of Beautiful Madonna
Back to medieval church-setting
Sarcophagus in 1907: A Nostalgia
St Constantine’s Sarcophagus
One of the significant stones is St Constantine’s Sarcophagus. The early Govan church was dedicated to St Constantine and was founded with royal patronage around 9th century and possibly early (Ritchie, 1999). Another discussion worth stressing is who St Constantine is. Although there are many explanations about St Constantine, it is hard to identify which person was the owner of this sarcophagus – a common name used in late eighth century, the migration of groups of Strathclyde aristocrats, the translation of saints’ relics – there were many persons called Constantine during this period and even putting together a history of the Scottish church at this time is difficult as well (Alan, 1997). However, no matter a King or a monk, the one thing could be said is he was an important historic figure in Govan’s history, representing the power, divinity, extraordinariness, and the Sarcophagus, even the church were dedicated to him – St Constantine’s Sarcophagus can be seen as one of the most representative stones in Govan.
Govan Old and the Govan’s Community
Indeed, the development of Govan Old was closely bound up with the development in Govan which largely influenced the Govan Community. Historically, Govan Old had been the center of worship and social activity throughout the past several centuries in Govan – the Brittonic Kingdom, the Kingdom of Strathclyde, etc. -even during the heyday of the industrial period in Glasgow. Back in 1840‘s, Govan was at one point the center of the world-renowned Clydeside shipbuilding industry (William Beardmore, 2000), and it can be imagined that thousands of workers working in factories, ships waiting to enter the port, people flooding into Govan Old and gathering in the navel singing the choir – a scene of prosperity. In 1876, the ministry of Govan believed that the new church was to be a noble sanctuary to transcend the industrial ugliness of the Govan’s bustling shipyards, providing daily services (McKinstry, 2000), and the last extension was completed in 1908. At that time, Govan Old was favored by the economic prosperity in Govan. After World War 2, Govan shipbuilding faced a huge decline and was unable to compete with the new power around the world (Brocklehurst, 2013). Accompanying the demolishment of shipbuilders and shipyards, Govan Old experienced the decrease of numbers of congregation and was united by Church of Scotland with Linthouse to make it redundant. However, it still stopped providing regular Sunday services in 2007. Now, the function of Govan Old is a museum, more than a sacred place, displaying Govan Stones and it only opens for six months.
However, when it comes to the residents in Govan, the senior generation still remember when they were kids used to stand at the doors of the shipyards and thousands of men coming out at once, stand on the graves and pretend the rumble of the subway was a ghost, dig the holes in churchyard to understand the boundary (Govan Cross Townscape Heritage Initiative, 2014). In addition, Govan Old was surrounded by shipbuilders and shipyards in 1932. The memory of Govan Church and even the past glories in Govan throughout history is deeply rooted in residents’ lives and could be the identity of people in the Govan’s Community. According to Karin Dannehl, most of the artifacts could enjoy a mode of life cycle – a biography (Dannehl, 2018). For St Constantine’s Sarcophagus, the exact life experience might be difficult to trace back, however, it could be seen that it has experienced at least from carving-producing, being transported, anointing, dedicating, worshiping, burying, unearthing and finally settling in church through early medieval period to nowadays. In this case, Govan, Govan Old and the Govan Community have shared an identical life trajectory in history, one biography of them can reflect the other two. Therefore, the project team attempted to construct an interpretative biography of St Constantine’s Sarcophagus to reflect the fates in Govan Church and even the Community.